How Can A Garden Thrive In Hot Summer

Feeling really hot this summer?  It’s right.  Everywhere you go, you can see news about record high temperatures and wild fires.  In such hot weather, how can plants in a garden survive and thrive?

Record Temperature

July 2018 is the hottest month in California since 1895, when the temperatures were first recorded.  The average statewide temperature was 79.7 degrees, according to National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.

Several places in southern California set records for the hot temperature: UCLA: 111 Fahrenheit degrees; Burbank Airport 114; Santa Ana, 114; Riverside, 118; Ocotillo Wells (San Diego): 124.

According to Indicators of Climate Change in California, a comprehensive study by the California Environmental Protection Agency,

  • “Annual average air temperatures have increased since 1895, with the warmest four years on record occurring in the last four years.
  • Five of the state’s years with severe to extreme drought since record keeping began in 1895 occurred between 2007 and 2016.
  • Some of the largest glaciers in the Sierra Nevada have lost between 50 to 85 percent
 of their surface area since 1903.”

Wild Fire

With the record high temperature, 2018 is another year with huge wild fires.

According to the same study above:  “The area burned by wildfires each year has been increasing since 1950. Five of the largest fire years have occurred since 2006. The largest single recorded wildfire in the state, the Thomas Fire, which resulted in the filing of more than $1.8 billion in insurance claims, occurred in 2017.” The Thomas fire actually was just surpassed by the Ranch Fire that started in late July.

Per Wikipedia, in 2018, a total of 5,723 fires had burned an area of 1,250,467 acres (5,060.46 km2), according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection and the National Interagency Fire Center, as of August 28. The active Mendocino Complex Fire has burned more than 459,000 acres (1,860 km2), becoming the largest complex fire in the state’s history, with the complex’s Ranch Fire surpassing the Thomas Fire to become California’s single-largest modern wildfire.

wild fire

Plants suffer in the hot weather

With the record temperature, plants need sufficient water to survive and thrive.  When not enough water is provided, plants show signs of stress, which can be seen everywhere.

stressed plant

If the plants do not get enough water for too long, they will pass the point of being saved and just die off.

dead plant

To keep the lawn green,  a large amount of water is needed to spray on it, otherwise it will go yellow very quickly.

lawn watering

A garden thrives in the hot summer

Some gardens, however, do not need any extra water versus usual, yet still grow well despite the heat.  How is this achieved?

This garden was first installed in early spring:

drought tolerant garden

After just 3 months, the plants grew in a lot, with beautiful blossom:

drought tolerant garden

This sage grew from a small plant to a bush in just 3 months, big enough for the hummingbird to visit:

sage plant
When first installed

After 3 months:

sage plant
3 months after install

Another 3 months passed since late spring, it is the hot summer time with close-to-record setting temperatures.  How do the plants do?

They all do well!  While the high temperature stressed out so many other plants, not here.  The owner said he did not do anything after the garden was installed; he just let the irrigation run as first programmed, which is mere couple minutes each time, at about 3 times a week.

drought tolerant garden

 

Keys to a robust garden in summer

There are several important reasons to the thriving garden.

Plants

All the plants selected are drought tolerant, such as California native plants, and succulents.  The native plants are well adapted to California’s arid weather.  They have very strong root system and can go very deep and suck in the water.  That means, at very dry and hot times, they are better able to get water than other non-drought tolerant plants.  Here you see a California native Monkey Flower can live off very little water, on a rock.

California native

When they are planted in a garden, for many native plants, after they are established, they don’t need any extra water all year round.  They can sustain themselves from the water in the soil.  Here is the same native plant Monkey Flower in the garden.

California native

Succulents are another type of plants that only need little water.  They have no fear for dry and hot conditions – they thrive in it.

Succulent

Drip Irrigation

Even though all the plants are drought tolerant, they still need proper watering to establish.   Here, drip irrigation is the secret behind the water.

When the garden was installed, for every plant, a drip line was placed around its root zone, so water can drip right into the root ball in the soil.  As water is slowly dripped, it can be absorbed into the soil without any runoff.

A irrigation controller was installed to control the watering frequency and length automatically.  For this garden, just a short watering time was programmed, so the water usage is quite low.

drip irrigation

Mulch

Mulch is another key piece for the puzzle.  With it on the soil, evaporation is greatly reduced, and the moisture can be kept in the soil much longer.  In addition, it will suppress the  growth of the weeds, which take water away from the plants.  The mulch is made from tree bark, which is organic.  When it decompose, it will add organic matters to the soil, which will enhance the water storage capability, to allow it to hold more water, longer.

mulch

Much water can be saved versus lawn

In hot summer days, according to Ben Erickson,  “While the amount of water needed will vary depending on your climate, the weather, and the time of year; the general rule of thumb is to make sure your lawn receives 1″ of water to your lawn per week during dry conditions.”  So, for a 1000 square feet of lawn, in every week of dry conditions it needs 623 gallons of water, or, 89 gallons a day!

irrigation for lawn

A drought tolerant garden, on the other hand, uses much less.  As it only lasts couple minutes each time, by drip, the garden shown above uses just about 1/4 of the water of the same size lawn.    When you add up such drought tolerant landscapes, the amount of water saving can be really significant.

drip irrigation

When it is hot, everyone uses more water, so it puts a huge demand for the  water supply.  Unfortunately, the supply has been on the decline with the shrinking of the Sierra Nevada snowpack, higher temperature and other reasons.  Here is the Guadalupe river, the river of the Silicon Valley, at the peak of summer.

river

Here at Los Gatos Creek, a tributary to the Guadalupe river, the water was very low.  However, the birds and other aqua animals that live in this habitat, like this hawk, depend on the water to survive.

hawk

According to USGS, “Each Californian uses an average of 181 GALLONS of water each day. ” We then use half of that water on lawns and other outdoor landscaping to keep it green.  Water is a very valuable resource, we may use it in a more efficient manner.

On May 31,2018, California Gov. Jerry Brown signed into effect two water use efficiency bills, SB 606 and AB 1668.   “In preparation for the next drought and our changing environment, we must use our precious resources wisely. We have efficiency goals for energy and cars – and now we have them for water”.

“Establishing an indoor, per person water use goal of 55 gallons per day until 2025, 52.5 gallons from 2025 to 2030 and 50 gallons beginning in 2030.”  An outdoor target will be announced later.

For outdoor landscaping, we should aim to reduce the water usage from the current 50% of total to something lower.   This can be best achieved with a  water efficient garden.  As we can see in the garden above, it needs much less water than that for a lawn.   The drought tolerant plants can fill the garden with beautiful colors, and keep the water usage low even in hot summer days.   Birds and other pollinators love the blossom and will drop by often to visit.

It is hot out there.  No more worrying about spraying more water on the lawn to keep it green.   Just sit back, let the irrigation run as programmed, and enjoy the beautiful view the garden has to offer.

drought tolerant garden

Water Saving, and More: the Benefits of Drip Irrigation

When we think about installing a garden, often what come to our mind first are the design and plants – which plants to select, where to plant them, and how they will look?  While these are all very important, there is another equally critical aspect – how to keep the plants alive after they are planted?  That points us to – the irrigation system, mainly, the sprinkler and drip.

drip

The 2 systems

For irrigation of a garden, water is piped in.  From the pipe, how to deliver the water to the plants?  these 2 systems are the most common: sprinkler and drip.

Sprinkler is used for most of the lawns.

When the sprinkler system is used, not all the water go to the plants.  Water might evaporate away, especially in hot and windy weather; another scene we might see often is runoff.  The watering time might be too long; or the soil could only absorb so much water .  Runoff is a waste of water that should be avoided.

Sprinkler

Another irrigation system is drip.  It points to the root system of a plant, and distributes water by “dripping” it slowly into the soil.

Drip

The Innovation of Drip Irrigation

Modern drip irrigation was invented in Israel in the 1950s.   According to wikipedia, “a plastic emitter in drip irrigation was developed in Israel by Polish-born Simcha Blass and his son Yeshayahu.  Instead of releasing water through tiny holes easily blocked by tiny particles, water was released through larger and longer passageways by using velocity to slow water inside a plastic emitter. The first experimental system of this type was established in 1959 by Blass who partnered later (1964) with Kibbutz Hatzerim to create an irrigation company called Netafim. Together they developed and patented the first practical surface drip irrigation emitter.”

More than half of Israel’s total land area is a desert, where water is scarce.  Despite of this, Israel has a highly developed agriculture business.  It not only produces enough food for itself, but also is a major exporter for fresh produce.  How did they do it with so little water?   Drip irrigation has been credited as the one innovation that contributed most significantly to this extraordinary achievement.  The method allows water to be used so efficiently that large amount of corp can be grown and harvested with just the level of water in a desert.

Drip used in Israel
By Borisshin [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons]
Benefits of Drip Irrigation

As the example of Israel agriculture indicates, drip irrigation is a water efficient way for farming.  It is also a water efficient way for gardening.    There are some significant benefits of using drip irrigation.

Saves water

According to Save Our Water, compared with  sprinkler,  “drip saves 15 gallons each time you water”.

Water is delivered by “drips” right into the plant’s root area,  with little runoff or evaporation.  Almost all the water delivered is absorbed by the plants, translating to very high watering efficiency.

Runoff from sprinkler
Runoff from a sprinkler irrigation
drip
No runoff from drip

In California, outdoor landscape watering accounts for half of urban water usage.  To save water, it is essential that we use water for outdoor wisely.  Drip is the efficient way for outdoor watering.

On May 31,2018, California Gov. Jerry Brown signed into effect SB 606 and AB 1668.   “In preparation for the next drought and our changing environment, we must use our precious resources wisely. We have efficiency goals for energy and cars – and now we have them for water”.

In the bill, a water use goal for indoor use is set.  “Establishing an indoor, per person water use goal of 55 gallons per day until 2025, 52.5 gallons from 2025 to 2030 and 50 gallons beginning in 2030.”

A goal for outdoor will be announced in the near future.

2 years ago, when California was hit by the historical drought, Gov. Brown announced a mandatory 25% cut for the urban water use.  The mandate was lifted when the drought ended.  However, from that drought people come to realize how unpredictable the water situation can be, and how precious the water resource is.  With the 2 bills signed, water conservation becomes permanent in California, not just an one-off effort.

In many cities, runoff from irrigation is prohibited legally.  See the regulation in Santa Barbara:

“Irrigation with potable water that causes runoff onto adjacent property, non-irrigated areas, private and public walkways, roadways, parking lots, or parking structures is prohibited. Any excessive, unnecessary or unwarranted use of water is prohibited. All leaks must be repaired as soon as reasonably possible.”

It is very clear that we must use water wisely and efficiently in our daily lives.  For outdoor use, switching from lawn and sprinkler to drip irrigation is one of important steps we can take, among all other measures.

Part of the Rebate program

Many water districts and companies offer turf conversion rebate programs.  For a post-conversion landscape to qualify for the rebate, drip irrigation must be installed.  Drip equipment may also qualify for rebates.  This is what was specified in the Program Requirements for one such rebate program , Santa Clara Water District’s Landscape Rebate Program:

“Irrigation systems, if used within the converted area, must be low volume drip, micro-spray, or bubbler. The system must be in good working order, free of leaks and malfunctions. Once installed, the irrigation system must not create run-off, overspray, or misting.”

See more details of the program here.

Works great with mulch

Chips in the mulch can be carried away by the spraying water from a sprinkler, which can expose the soil beneath and accelerate evaporation.  With drip irrigation, as water will drip down slowly into the soil, it will not move the chips and mulch can stay for a long time.

In addition, when drip is used, much less water will be distributed on weeds compared with sprinkler.  The precise positioning of drips means water is provided only to the plants, not to any others like weeds.  This will prevent or slow the growth of weeds.

Saves time and effort

An automatic controller can be installed along with drip irrigation, so all the watering can be done automatically.  With at least one emitter for one plant, all the plants will receive the water they need.  Very little manual work will be required if all are set up correctly.

Installing Drip Irrigation

While drip irrigation can conserve water really well and saves time and effort, it requires advanced planning.  Here are the major steps of installing drip irrigation for a new garden.

  • Have a garden design and positions for each of the plants.
  •  After the yard is prepared, lay out the plants at where they are supposed to be according to the plan.

garden

  • Lay the pipes, install drip emitter for every plant.

garden 2

  • Cover the pipes and the surface of the garden with soil and mulch.  None of the pipes are visible now, only the beautiful plants!

garden 3

Weather-Based Irrigation Controller and Rain Sensor

An automatic controller can be installed to automate the drip watering. The length and frequency of each watering can easily be entered from the touch pad of the controller.

To further conserve water, a rain sensor can be connected to a smart  irrigation controller.  When it rains, the information will be transmitted to the controller, which will then delay the next watering scheduled, avoiding the waste of the water.

rain sensor

Some controllers have mobile phone apps that work with them.  After you download the app, you can view information or operate the controller from your phone, anywhere you go.

watering app

Gardens grew well with drip irrigation

Now we know drip irrigation can save water, how do they work for the plants?  Do they grow well with such drip method?

The answer is positive.  For the garden illustrated above, this was how it looked after the installation was done:

garden

After just half year, plants grew big, a lot of them bloomed:

Water Efficient Garden

This was how a plant was like when it was first planted, a drip was installed for it:

plant 1

After half year:

plant 2

After a year and half:

plant 3

This is another garden that was irrigated with just drip irrigation.  This was when it was installed:

garden

After just a year:

water efficient garden

This Lion’s Tail grew from a small plant to a big bush in less than a year with the drip irrigation.  Hummingbirds love its flowers!

plant

hummingbird

In summary, drip irrigation can allow us to use water wisely for outdoor landscaping.  Not only can we save water, plants can also grow well.  If installed together with a smart controller and rain sensor, it can save even more water.  Plant some drought tolerant plants, and install drip irrigation.  We can have a beautiful garden with just a little water!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drip Irrigation – Essential for a Water Efficient Garden

When we think about installing a garden, often what come to our mind first are which plants to select and where to plant them.  While these are all very important, there is another equally important aspect – the irrigation system.

IMG_6629

For a water efficient garden, drip irrigation is the way to go.

Benefits of Drip Irrigation

  • Saves water. Compared with other irrigation methods such as sprinkling, drip uses 30% to 50% less water.   Water is delivered by “drips” right into the plant’s root area,  with little runoff or evaporation.  Almost all the water delivered is absorbed by the plants, translating to very high watering efficiency.  As California is still in its historical drought, and outdoor watering accounts for 50% – 70% of a household’s total water usage, it is essential that we conserve water .  For outdoor landscape watering, drip is the best answer for conservation.

S

  • Works great with mulch.  Chips in the mulch can be carried away by the spraying water from a sprinkler, which can expose the soil beneath and accelerate evaporation.  With drip irrigation, as water will drip down slowly into the soil, it will not move the chips and mulch can stay for a long time.
  • No water on weeds.  The precise positioning of drips means water is provided only to the plants, not to any others like weeds.  This will prevent or slow the growth of weeds.
  • Saves time and effort.  An automatic controller can be installed along with drip irrigation, so all the watering can be done automatically.  With at least one emitter for one plant, all the plants will receive the water they need.
  • Included in the Santa Clara Water District’s Landscape Rebate Program for qualified households.  The automatic controller and compatible rain sensor are covered if they are pre-approved during on-site inspection.

Installing Drip Irrigation

While drip irrigation can conserve water really well and saves time and effort, it requires advanced planning.  Here are the major steps of installing drip irrigation for a new garden.

  • Have a garden design and positions for each of the plants.
  •  After the yard is prepared, lay out the plants at where they are supposed to be according to the plan.

img_5955

  • Lay the pipes, install drip emitter for every plant.

IMG_6004

  • Cover the pipes and the surface of the garden with soil and mulch.  None of the pipes are visible now, only the beautiful plants!

dripirrigation2

Weather-Based Irrigation Controller and Rain Sensor

An automatic controller can be installed to automate the drip watering. The length and frequency of each watering can easily be entered from the touch pad of the controller.

To further conserve water, a rain sensor can be connected to a smart drip irrigation controller.  When it rains, the information will be transmitted to the controller, which will then delay the next watering scheduled, avoiding the waste of the water.

IMG_6654

Some controllers have mobile phone apps that work with them.  After you download the app, you can view information or operate the controller from your phone, anywhere you go.

IMG_6657

In summary, drip irrigation can best conserve water for outdoor landscape watering.  With an automatic controller and mobile phone app, it is really convenient too to use a drip system.  Choose controllers that can work with a rain sensor – take full advantage of all the rains and conserve even more water!

img_6626