How to Harvest Rainwater and Build a Beautiful Landscape

New year, new rain.  It has been a wet start for California in 2019.  Since the start of the year, several strong storms have hit the state, each bringing some serious amount of rainwater.  As a result, the majority of the state is no longer in some dryness conditions it was in before.  In the year’s first snow survey conducted on Jan 3, the snowpack water content  was  67% of average;  4 weeks later, in the second survey conducted on Jan 31, it jumped to 125% thanks to all the storms.   In a dry place like California, all these rains spell joy for everyone.  With the memory of the last mega drought still fresh on everyone’s mind, it is natural to ask: how can we best deal with all this water?  Just let it run away, or harvest it and reuse it, e.g., to build a rain landscape?

much storms Since begin of the year

Since the new year starts, storms kept coming to California.  On 1/16, one of the strongest storms pounded northern California for 3 days, bringing in 1-5 inches of rain for many places.  The city of San Jose received 1.36 inches.

Just 2 weeks later, another storm pummeled the area for 4 days, with San Jose receiving 1.9 inches.   At this point , “Rainfall totals across Northern California continue to creep closer to average for this time of year. Through Sunday at 6 p.m., rainfall totals for the water year which began Oct. 1 include Redding at 21.24 inches (109 percent of normal), Santa Rosa at 19.23 inches (90 percent), San Francisco 12.22 inches (88 percent), Oakland 9.42 inches (81 percent) and San Jose 7.42 inches (87 percent).”

This time, the storm not only brought rain, but also snow to the peaks in the area.  “A “very cold air mass” lowered snow levels to only about 1000 feet in the San Francisco bay area, having all the major peaks  covered in snow on Feb 5 morning.  Last time this happened was 1976.  Here, you can see Mt. Umumhum in the Santa Cruz Mountain range covered in snow.

Snow on Mt Humuhum
Snow on Mt Umumhum in Santa Cruz mountain range

For most of us, while we enjoy the rains, sometimes it  can also spell some inconveniences.  Some roofs might leak.  Water pools under the downspout, which can be damaging for the base of the house.  Roads full of water that makes driving hard.

water from downspout

Most of the infrastructures in place are indeed designed to send the rainwater out as soon as possible.  Rainwater runoff flows down streets, into storm drains and then right out to the creek and ocean.  However, is this the right thing to do?

rainwater runoff

Rain Water is Critical for Water Supply and the Environment

Rain water is basically clean water that falls right on every household’s roof.  Many times, it is not just a trivial amount – can be quite a bit.  For a house in San Jose with a roof of 1000 sq ft,  the 1.9 inches of rain that it received in last storm translates to  1184 gallons of water.   If we use the state’s average water use of 63 gallons per person per day,  the water is enough for a person’s use of 19 days. with just one storm’s water on one roof.

If we use the 7.42 inches that San Jose has received since the beginning of the water year (10/1/2018), then the roof has received 4625 gallons, enough for 73 days or about 2 and a half month’s use.

As we can see in the photo above, this much water just went down the drain and was gone.  If we add all the roofs’ rainwater together, for the whole city, and the area, the amount of rainwater that goes out this way is a gigantic number.  What impact does it have on the environment when so much rain water goes away instantly?

Loss of fresh water

Rain water is fresh water delivered to every household without any transportation.  The water can be used for irrigation, or other daily needs if properly treated and meeting certain hygiene standard.  In comparison, a big part of the city water we use is delivered to us over mountains, plains and across hundreds of miles, or even longer.  A big chunk of tap water in the coastal cities comes from Sierra Navada range in the east of the state.  By turning the rainwater away instantly, we lose much water that can otherwise be used.   California is a dry place, such a loss of water is a waste we can not afford.

Depletion of underground water

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth‘s surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. (Wikepedia)

Groundwater is an important source of our water.  “Groundwater provides the largest source of usable water storage in the United States, and California annually withdraws the largest amount of groundwater of all the states.”  (Wikipedia) In California, “On average, underground aquifers provide nearly 40% of the water used by California’s farms and cities, and significantly more in dry years.”  We depend on the ground water for our water supply; unfortunately, due to heavy pumping, some water basins have been “critically overdrafted.”

“Groundwater supplies are replenished, or recharged, by rain and snow melt that seeps down into the cracks and crevices beneath the land’s surface. ”  In cities, with the prevalence of impervious surfaces such as rooftops and driveways, rainwater runs off, instead of falling on the soil underneath those surfaces, depriving the soil the recharging.

Just last week, it was reported that due to the overpumping during the historic drought from 2012-2016, a California town sank over 2 feet in 9 years.  If we want to secure  a future with stable water supply,  it is of utmost importance that we recharge the groundwater now.

rainwater runoff on a road

Pollution to Waterway

As it flows through the surface of the city, stormwater runoff collects all kinds of pollutants such as motor oil, gas, chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.  As the stormwater is discharged into the waterways untreated, the toxic substances can pollute the water and harm birds, fishes and other aquatic life that live there.

Risk of flash flood, mudslide and erosion

During storms, a large amount of stormwater can gather and join force, flow down slopes,  fill freeways and roads, and flood lower places. Here, after the storm on Jan 16, a city was working to take water out from its storm water system to prevent flooding.

flood prevention

In the same storm, after heavy rains hit the Santa Cruz mountain area,  a mudslide happened on southbound highway 17, forcing the closure of all lanes.  In southern California, evacuation orders were issued to communities in LA County and Santa Barbary country  for the high risk of flash flood.

2 years ago in  May 17, a debris slide at the Monterrey section of Pacific Coast Highway (highway 1) was so massive that it forced the highway to close for more than 1 year, before it finally reopened in June 18.   Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) is world famous with its majestic views for the pacific ocean.  The long closure had a pretty big impact on the area’s tourism.  Here, the Bixby bridge could not be crossed through for a year due to the PCH’s closure.

Photo credit: Dave Lastovskiy

Harvesting Rain with a Rain Garden

As the rain water is so critical for us, for our water supply and environment, we should harvest it for a good use, instead of letting it runaway.

There are several ways to harvest rainwater.  One is to install rain barrels or cistern.   The rainwater can be collected and stored in the barrels or cisterns; which can be taken out for irrigation later.

Another way is to build a rain garden.  As EPA defines it: “A rain garden is a depressed area in the landscape that collects rain water from a roof, driveway or street and allows it to soak into the ground. Planted with grasses and flowering perennials, rain gardens can be a cost effective and beautiful way to reduce runoff from your property. Rain gardens can also help filter out pollutants in runoff and provide food and shelter for butterflies, song birds and other wildlife.”

Here we are going to use 2 rain gardens that were just finished to illustrate how they were built.   When the owners first planned a garden project for their house, they just wanted to build some veggie beds in the backyard so they could grow veggies.  However, at the site review, after everyone looked at where the downspouts were and how the rainwater was sent and not used, it became clear that these were good opportunities to capture the rainwater with rain landscapes.

How to build a rain garden

While rain gardens have different looks and shapes and may serve slightly different functions depending on the locations they are in, some basic steps to make them are pretty much the same.  Here are the major steps in building a rain garden for a residential house.

First, Find out where the downspout is and where the water flows  to, and identify a good location for  the rain garden.  The soil at the location should absorb water well.  If not sure, take a water test: dig a hole of 6 inches, fill  in water to full, then see how long it takes for the water to soak down.  If it takes more than 12 hours, consider another location.

In the front,  the downspout is located right next to the yard.  While all the rainwater would go into soil, which was good, it could be further diverted out and flow to a rain garden, allowing soil soaking for a bigger area.

front yard

Second, outline the water channel and the rain garden.  It can be a circle, an oval, a peanut, or a kidney – shapes of curvy lines.  Here is the outline for the rain garden in the front yard.

front yard rain garden

Lastly, install the rain garden.  Dig out the depression along the shape defined, add a layer of soil that is comprised of compost and coarse sand, then put in plants which are rain garden appropriate – can stand both wet and dry conditions well.   After all is done, for a nice touch, add some pebbles on top, which help filter out debris in the rainwater, and give the garden a nice look.

front yard rain garden

front yard rain garden

Around rain garden, some more plants were added.  Most were California native plants. There are several big advantages for planting native versus non-native..  First, it saves water.  Native plants only need a fraction of water compared with non-natives after they are established; second, as the native plants have been the food for local insects and pollinators, they provide a far stronger support for  the local eco system.

California native plant

Along the edge, a row of lavenders were planted, adding much charm to the garden.  Here is the old front yard, and the new yard with the rain landscape:

front yard rain landscape

In the backyard, a downspout pointed right at the drainage so the rainwater was lost right a away.  In the project,  a pipe was connected and the water was piped out to a corner away from the house, where it can soak down to the soil.

backyard

 

backyard rain garden

 

In this blog post the process is explained in more detail.

You can also take a look at this video.

Rain gardens Examples

Here is another example for rain garden.  The downspout comes down to the front yard, with all the rainwater soaking the small area close to the house.  After the rain garden was built, water was diverted to this depression, making a nice rain landscape.

rain garden

This is another project with a rain garden.  There are two downspouts one each side.  Before the rain garden was built, rainwater just soaked the area or flew down driveway.   After the garden, both downspouts’ rain water are captured and diverted further.  This was how the garden was built:

rain garden

With all the storms this year, the garden comes out to look great.  This is how it looks after a strong storm:

rain garden after rain

 

rain garden after rain

rain garden after rain

Santa Clara Water District Rain Harvesting Rebate Program

From 2019, Santa Clara Water District started a “Rainwater Capture Rebate Program“, adding to the original “Landscape Conversion Rebate Program”.  On its website, the district says:

“We are pleased to announce our new Rainwater Capture Rebates starting January 1, 2019! Rainwater capture, also know as rainwater harvesting, can be used as an alternative water source, reducing demands on our treated water supply and replenishing our underground aquifers. Keeping rainwater onsite also serves an important role in reducing stormwater runoff that can lead to erosion, flooding, and pollution of our creeks and streams. Through our Landscape Rebate Program online application process, residents and business owners can apply to:

  • Receive a rebate up to $35 per qualifying rain barrel installed to collect rainwater from existing downspouts,
  • Receive a rebate of $0.50 per gallon for diverting existing downspouts to qualifying cisterns, and
  • Receive a rebate of $1 per square foot of roof area diverted (up to $300 per site) into an installed rain garden to collect roof water runoff.

Projects that have been started or projects that have already been completed prior to application approval are not eligible.”

In summary, rainwater is a resource too valuable to lose.  We should  harvest as much of it as we can.  Install a rain barrel, or build a rain garden: it will go a long way to saving water, protecting our environment, as well as giving you beautiful landscapes right around your home.

 

 

 

 

How to Attract Pollinator to Your Yard in 3 Steps

A golden monarch butterfly stopping on a bush, a hummingbird sucking from a flower…a view that everyone would love to see.  The good news is, we can turn a yard into a pollinator friendly garden and enjoy such a view often.   Pollinators play a vital role for the eco-system, and for us humans, yet their populations have experienced dramatic decline in the last 20 years.  We can do something now to help slow or stop the decline.  Here, by looking at the garden as an example, we can show that in 3 steps, a space without any pollinator can become one full of it within just 2 years.

Step 1: shrink down or remove the lawn

After the historic drought in California 2 years ago, this lawn turned completely brown.  The house owner wanted to get rid of the eye sore  and have something beautiful.  They wanted a garden with  lots flowers, a garden that would bloom year round.  When they heard that such a conversion would also allow them to receive the Landscape Conversion Rebate, they decided to take on the project.

To replace a lawn makes sense, as it needs a lot of water.  A converted landscape can save water by 30-80%.   in addition, a lawn does not have the different colors and flowers that pollinators need, so it can hardly be a habitat.

Step 2: Put in plants that sport bright blossom

During the design process, plants were carefully selected to have bright blossom, and would bloom for a long time.   Luckily, many of the drought tolerant plants meeting the requirements of the rebate program can fit the bill very well.  There were a lot to choose from.  Plants like Statice, Cherry Sage, Cone Flower, Lion’s Tail were all good candidates.

The project started, very quickly a floral garden was installed.

Step 3: Wait for the blossom, and pollinators follow

The plants grew quickly.  After just a couple months, in early spring, some plants already grew to a point where they bloomed.

After just a year, the garden was in full bloom.  A dream was fulfilled:

pollinator friendly garden

Sure enough, some small visitors came.:

bees on flower

Sage 2

monarch butterfly

This humming bird really craved the flower.  It worked on every single petal:

hummingbird

hummingbird

In just 3 steps ,  a little a space without any pollinator became this magnet that attracted all types and many of them.

Another garden: same transformation

This garden also went from a lawn without pollinator to one with a lot.  The garden was designed to be a California native plants garden, so more native plants were chosen.

 

One of the plant selected was Matilijia Poppy.  This is a big California native, once a contender for the California state flower.  This is how it looks like in the field:

Planted in the garden:

M Poppy

In the first summer after planting, it grew its first flower:

M Poppy

After another year,  it grew into this full bush with its big white flowers.   M Poppy

Sure enough, bees came to visit:

M Poppy

Another California native chosen was the California Golden Poppy, also favorite for the bees:

G Poppy

At the end of summer, even though most of the poppies already faded, the bee still wanted to have what was out there:

G Poppy

Both gardens showed to us, that by replacing  lawns with landscapes of nectar plants, the pollinators would love them and come.  We could provide a habitat to them from our own yards.

A serious issue – decline of pollinators

Pollinators play a critical role for the eco system in nature, and for us humans.

When the bees flying from flowers to flowers collecting their pollens, they rub pollens from a flower onto another, pollinating the flowers, which enables fertilization and turns the flowers into seeds and fruits.   The seeds allow the next generations of the plants to grow, thus ensuring a bio system to continue and thrive.

For agriculture, bees pollinate 75% of world’s main crops.  According to USDA, bees pollinate an estimated $15 billion or more of American crops per year. It is hard to imagine a world without the bees pollinating all those crops.

Unfortunately, in the last 2 decades, the pollinators of bee, butterfly and hummingbird all experience rather significant decline, some species go as far as to the brink of extinction.  The culprit?  while the scientists are still exploring, the widespread use of pesticide, pollution, climate change, and loss of habitat all count as remarkable reasons.

Bee

According to a study by Center for Biological Diversity (author Kelsey Kopec, a pollinator researcher):

  • “Among native bee species with sufficient data to assess (1,437), more than half (749) are declining.
  • Nearly 1 in 4 (347 native bee species) is imperiled and at increasing risk of extinction.”

The rusty patched bumble bee has declined by almost 90% since 1990s that U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed it as an endangered species in early 2017.  It became first wild bee in the continental United States to be listed as endangered species.

In this article “Why are bees declining“, the big reasons for the decline are described as:

“Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation – Homelessness; General declines in wildflowers within the landscape – Hunger, Pests and disease – Sickness, Agrochemicals – Poisoning, Climate change – Changing environment”

Humming Bird

According to Ellen Paul, “the annual breeding bird survey shows that between 1966 and 2013, the rufous population on the Pacific Coast dropped an average of 2.67 per cent per year. ”  Pesticide was thought to be one possible factor for the decline, with a research going on right now to find out;  Climate change, and loss of habitat that comes with it, can be another big one.  According to Climate Central:

“the warming temperatures make it harder for these birds to eat, rest, and even reproduce… Rather than search for food in the increasingly hotter summers, some hummingbirds simply seek shade to remain cool. They are also less social during the hotter weather, suggesting they are not as likely to mate.

Suitable habitats for hummingbirds are also starting to shrink as the climate changes. Spring blooms are occurring earlier in the year, affecting the timing between blooming plants and hummingbirds’ return from their tropical winter retreat. This can leave the flowering blooms without their necessary pollinators, and at the same time birds have less food, which puts both plants and animals at risk.”

Monarch Butterfly

The most alarming decline comes from monarch butterfly.  According to David Mizejewski on EcoWatch, “populations of this once-common iconic black and orange butterfly have plummeted by approximately 90 percent in just the last two decades. The threats to the species are the loss of habitat in the United States–both the lack of availability of milkweed, the only host food plant for monarch caterpillars, as well as nectar plants needed by adults- through land conversion of habitat for agriculture, removal of native plants and the use of pesticides and loss of habitat in Mexico from illegal logging around the monarchs’ overwintering habitat. The new population numbers underscore the need to continue conservation measures to reverse this trend.”

One of the most effective conversion measures, that we can do,  is to build more habitats for the pollinators.  It can be in our front and back yards, or on the campus of a company or school.

Big tech putting native plants on their campuses

In the last several years, big high tech companies in the Silicon Valley  planted native plants around their campuses and transformed them into spaces friendly for pollinators.

Apple

At Apple’s iconic spaceship campus, the 3 acres space is filled by 9000 trees, California native and other drought tolerant plants.

Spaceship

 

native plants

The native plants that were planted just a year ago on the campus, are already serving the hungry bees the food they love.

native plants

bee

Google

At Google’s Mountain View headquarter, most of the planting areas are also filled with California native and drought tolerant plants.  Here the California native buckwheat is blooming in the heat of summer.

native plants

The bee is busy feeding on nectar

bee

Here is a parking lot on the campus.  A butterfly is working on the California native Cleveland Sage planted in the garden next to the parking lot.

 

butterfly

More plants, more pollinators

native plants

 

native plants

While we don’t have a huge yard like these, when we all put a couple native plants and other nectar plants in our garden, together they can make up this habitat that the pollinators badly need for their survival and thrive.  Let’s act today and build a garden friendly for pollinator.